Sushruta (or Sushrut)was a great Indian Physician and Surgeon. He was born in 800 BC in the ancient city of Kashi(currently known as Varanasi, India). He is known as ‘Father of Indian Medicine’ and ‘Father of Plastic Surgery’. He wrote a book ‘Sushruta Samhita’ where he had mentioned about medicine and plastic surgery (earliest to give the detailed description of rhinoplasty). Later, his book was translated into Arabic as Kitab-Shaw Shoon-e-Hind and Kitab-e-Susrud in the eighth century A.D.
According to him, anyone wishing to acquire a thorough knowledge of anatomy, must prepare a dead body and carefully observe ans examine all its parts”. He developed the surgical techniques for reconstructing nose, genitalia and earlobes for the people amputated as several kinds of punishments. He used Rhinoplasty technique for reconstructing nose and otoplasty for earlobe using the skin of the cheek.
He also wrote, “For insensibility to pain, wine should be used before operations. It protects the patient from fainting and does not feel the pain of the operation.”
His major contributions are as follows:
- Rhinoplasty (for nose)
- Otoplasty (for earlobe)
- Cheek flap for constructing the earlobe
- Accidental lip injuries and congenital cleft lip
- Systemic dissection of cadavers
- Used Leeches to protect blood clotting
- Used different instruments according to the requirements.
Different types of instruments and tools used by Sushruta
Sushruta’s work “Sushruta Samhita”
Sushruta performing surgery